The Clinton’s performance over the last 30 years is the obvious forecast of how they will govern in the future. Voters are hopefully inspecting the Clinton’s performance to judge whether to vote for Hillary in 2016. As they cost the telecommunications, technology and other industries over a half million jobs with this single piece of legislation, voters should scrutinize the record to see what the Clinton’s performance truly illustrates.
For Sale to the Highest Bidder
Hillary Clinton’s administration is for sale just like every other moment of the Clinton’s political career. If you want the voters to be represented in the White House rather than the special interests you cannot vote for the Clintons.
2016 versus 1996 – New Boss Same as the Old Boss
How is this relevant to today and the 2016 Presidential election?
The Clintons will do exactly the same as all of the other Clinton’s Performances and you are very likely to end up losing your livelihood, home, health and even family like millions of others did from their first administration. In the instance of our youth, thousands of Americans have died either overseas or at home due their polcieie
1992 – Bill and Hillary Clinton inherited a robust economy built by Ronald Reagan and claimed all credit. They were the architects of policies that have grown into twisted, destructive tornadoes that affect our country to this very moment. They claim the former and deny ownership of the latter. They will do the exact same if elected again.
The Telecommunications Act is my first blog post on the numerous Clinton monsters as it destroyed many careers and livelihoods among my friends and their families. Let me also be very clear that the Clintons had a strong ally in this legislation: the republicans in congress. The Act is demonstrative of what happens when two corrupt parties work together in a “bi-partisan” manner which means crony capitalism or in more simple terms – bribery.
The Clinton’s Performance and Poor Judgment
The record of the Clinton’s performance is out there if your reading glasses can penetrate the media spin. This latest scandal with Hillary Clinton and her e-mail servers is just another in a series that shows a complete and dangerous lack of judgment. This sort of cavalier attitude and poor judgment allowed Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda to prosper and prepare for 9/11 while Bill Clinton fiddled with a young intern during his eight year keg party.
Unlike Obama, who completely understands the outcomes of his actions, the Clintons actually believe they are sound leaders who improve our country. They are sociopaths who will submit our country to another round of job and life losses through their horrible judgment.
To demonstrate that reality I offer up as evidence the first in the Clinton series: The Telecommunications Act of 1996.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 – A Dismal Illustration of the Clinton’s Performance
Serves as an example of the exact sort of short-sighted, special interest focused, over-reaching legislation that another corrupt Clinton big government administration will push on the American people.
It is amazing how history is spun by people into a fabric of lies.
Revisionism is an effective weapon used to create a fictional history. For example, a frequent refrain from those who support the democrats is how great Bill Clinton was for the economy and they present the 1990’s economy as their evidence.
Another method skillfully deployed is the claiming of credit and disavowing of blame. In the business world the phrase frequently used to describe inept and sleazy salespeople is: Owns nothing but claims everything.
That’s the democrats in a nutshell, personified in Bill. Hillary Clinton, and Obama.
Impact of the Act
The passage of this bill was the key instrument in destroying at least a half million jobs by the consolidation of power and domination of markets by key players like AT&T, Verizon and Viacom. The donations to the democrats and republicans by the special interests are clearly outlined in the supporting documentation. Both parties are corrupt and to blame and this legislation offers further validation of the need for an outsider like Donald Trump. One more rendition of the Clinton’s performance will be disastrous.
Twenty years after the passage we all recognize an anti-establishment sentiment pervading politics and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 stands as one of the poster children of corrupt politics. Today, educated voters agree that our representatives in Washington have been supporting special interests over the voters for a long time. Back in the nineties, educated voters knew of the strength and influence of the lobbyists and special interests, but most voters either didn’t realize the level of corruption or pointed fingers only at the opposing party. Today, the widespread ease of access to information allows us 20/20 hindsight and a clear paper trail to follow the money and legislation back into the pockets of all our politicians. The bi-partisan effort on this bill illustrates bi-partisan self-interest and graft.
A Short History of Telecommunications Prior to the Clinton’s Performance
In the 1990’s the telecommunication’s industry was an incredibly vibrant sector of the economy and fostering dramatic innovation that came as a result of the break-up of Ma Bell in 1984 and lower taxes from the Reagan administration. Much of what we have today from Apple, Microsoft, Cisco, and Intel caught fire in the eighties. The groundwork for much of today’s technology like wireless networks was being built through vast global deployment of fiber optics that dramatically lowered the costs for communications. Take, for instance, the simple comparison of how much a phone call cost with the Ma Bell monopoly versus an open and free market.
A phone call from Manhattan to Connecticut cost:
Ma Bell – approximately 54 cents per minute – 1980’s
Open Market (MCI, Sprint, and others) – approximately 20 cents per minute – 1995
I have firsthand experience with this topic but even though I bore witness, it is still difficult for me to grasp that a phone call between two places in the United States lasting for two minutes could cost $2 or even over .30 cents. The costs per minute were in addition to the monthly cost of having a business or home telephone service which was in the range of $40 to $70 per month per line or trunk. Compare this to today, when calls on a cell phone or voice over IP to almost anywhere in the world are practically free. That development is the ramification and beauty of a free, open market unfettered by government interference that existed when Ma Bell was broken up in 1984.
The 90’s – The global market benefited from the significantly lower rates per minute as it encouraged global commerce to develop and prosper. In addition, the deployment of data connectivity between locations around the world was perpetuating the growth and adoption of the world wide web aka the Internet.
In the United States alone there were dozens of companies in the telecommunications sector that were thriving while building the information superhighway we still benefit from today. The hundreds of thousands of employees were well paid, happy, energized, and supporting their families in a dynamic, growing and innovative market sector that was comparable to today’s banking industry. However, unlike contemporary bankers, telecommunications employees thrived free of government welfare or bailouts.
1990’s Telecommunications Climate – We killed their Ma and now we need to kill the little bastards
One corporate executive for a telecommunications company toured the country on a speaking tour. His presentation was a reflection of how the upstart long distance companies had leveraged the anti-trust act to break up the Ma Bell / AT&T monopoly into seven Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCS). He made a call to arms by joking that we had killed their Ma (Ma Bell), and now the focus was to kill off the little bastards too.
They were doing just that. The free market was well on its way to making the RBOCs businesses go extinct. The entrepreneurial zeal of the new telecommunications employers was passed onto their employees and it seemed that the old bell companies with their outdated business practices, pallid cultures, and copper based technology were the modern representative of the horse buggies failing against a burgeoning auto industry. Take, for instance the impact on the original AT&T (before SBC acquisition). AT&T’s market share declined from from 90.1% in 1984 at the time of its dismantling, to less than 4.5%).
1996 – Enter Big Government – If You Can’t Beat Them, Buy Them (Via Politicians)
The RBOCS saw they could not compete and therefore sought to change the rules. They went about changing the playing field to one in which they could win by repeatedly visiting their representatives in Washington. For many years the messaging from the upstart business leaders at companies like MCI was on beating the competition by delivering value through innovation and strong customer advocacy. Suddenly, the message changed. Employees were encouraged to make signs and parade alongside the other startups in opposition to new legislation called the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The loyal employees charged the field with the energy and optimism that characterized the freewheeling culture of the 1990’s that had grown in an industry free of governmental interference. Those days would soon be gone forever; that optimism and expectation of justice for all would soon be replaced by special interests, graft and crony capitalism. Live by the sword, die by the sword of government intervention would become a poignant reality for MCI and others who experienced the pendulum swing the away under the predictability of a capricious government.
This is what the Clinton’s performance offers you good reader.
The Act during the Clinton’s Performance
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was a special interest dream for the largest corporations including the RBOCs who still held strong political influence in their geographies. They typically were either the largest or one of the largest employers in their state and/or region.
The RBOCS were:
Ameritech (Now AT&T)
Bell Atlantic (Now Verizon)
BellSouth (Now AT&T)
NYNEX (Now Verizon)
Pacific Telesis (Now AT&T)
Southwestern Bell (Now AT&T)
US West (Now CenturyLink)
Follow the Money
Every one of these companies had senators and congressmen in their pockets and were solid contributors to whatever political party held sway. In 1996 the executive branch was led by Bill Clinton and congress had a republican majority for the first time in over 40 years.
Against the Telecoms Act were a larger number of comparatively small businesses that held little political influence and were dwarfed in size and lobbying power. MCI was a startup that had prospered and was led by entrepreneur Bill McGowan. They were the unofficial leader and jokingly referred to as a law firm with an antenna on the roof due their success in the 1980 anti-trust case against Ma Bell.
- Verizon was the number one telecom donor to both parties from 1997-2004 -$65,000,000*
- AT&T / SBC was the second largest to both parties – $47,000,000 from 1997-2004*
- AT&T has donated over $90,000,000 to both parties in the last 26 years*
*(Source – Common Cause)
Bi-Partisan Corruption – Reaching Across the Aisle to Share the Money – Impact of the Clinton’s Performance
- Passed the House 414 – 16
- Passed the Senate 91-5
Lobbying Power during and after the Clinton’s Performance
- Verizon has hired over 1600 different lobbyists over the last 16 years. (Source – Followthemoney.org)
- AT&T has hired over 2966 different lobbyists over the last 16 years. (Source – Followthemoney.org)
Third Party Views on the Act and Clinton’s Performance
The Princeton Review stated:
The legislation passed in 1996 was a political compromise that gave the major interest groups what they wanted. In a notorious giveaway, Congress handed broadcast owners additional spectrum worth billions of dollars, ostensibly to introduce high-definition television, though no one expected it to be used that way. The legislation also deregulated cable-TV rates on the assumption that satellite TV would restrain cable prices, but without requiring any proof that such competition was working. The local phone companies, however, received the right to enter the long-distance market only when they were certified as having opened up local phone service to competitors. This provision — along with a telephone surcharge to support Internet access for schools and libraries — was the Democrats’ main victory in a Congress dominated by Newt Gingrich and Bob Dole
The biggest early disappointment was the fate of the “raiders of the local loop,” as Reed Hundt, Bill Clinton’s first fcc chairman, called the new companies founded to compete in local telephone service. Deciding to fight rather than open their switches, some of the Baby Bells used litigation to delay the entry of new competitors, and in 2001 such “raiders” as Covad, Focal Communications, McLeod, Northpoint and Winstar went bankrupt in one of the first signs of telecom’s troubles
Twenty-three telecom companies have gone bankrupt in a wave capped off by the July 21 collapse of WorldCom, the single largest bankruptcy in American history.
Declining long-distance revenue was a principal factor in the bankruptcy of WorldCom, which owns MCI. Many in the industry are convinced that the long-distance companies — including AT&T — cannot survive as separate businesses and will be absorbed by other firms, most likely by the Baby Bells. Not so long ago, AT&T and Lucent (the old Western Electric) were the core of the American telephone industry; both may be gone in a few years..
The fulfillment of a dream nightmare
The act did pass and with it the end of an era. Within three years the large startups like MCI, LDDS, and CLECS would either be gone or permanently altered. With every business lost went thousands of jobs and careers. To compete with massive former RBOCs like Verizon the smaller companies would merge or acquire and take risky chances that would spell their fate. MCI, the darling of the long distance startups, entered the local telephone phone market to survive and was crushed by the costs and later acquired by WorldCom. In 2002, 29 of the independent 31 telecommunications companies declared bankruptcy. Close to a half million telecom workers soon lost their jobs and hundreds of telecom companies were in bankruptcy of which two were rated as within the three largest bankruptcies in American corporate history.
The telecom mess unfolded in waves. The first wave was the stumble of telecom equipment makers such as Lucent Technologies and Nortel Networks. The second wave was the devastation of the long haul carriers such as WorldCom, Global Crossing, and Qwest Communications.
Mergers after the Clinton’s Performance
Many of these companies have since merged; by the end of 2000, there were only three of the original Baby Bells left in the United States. After the 1984 breakup, part of AT&T Corp.’s Bell Labs was split off into Bellcore, which would serve as an R&D and standards body for the seven Baby Bells. In 1997, Bellcore was acquired by Science Applications International Corporation where it became a wholly owned subsidiary and was renamed Telcordia.
Southwestern Bell Corporation, which changed its name to SBC Communications in 1995, acquired Pacific Telesis in 1997, SNET in 1998, and Ameritech in 1999. In February 2005, SBC announced its plans to acquire former parent company AT&T Corp. for over $16 billion. SBC took on the AT&T name upon merger closure on November 18, 2005. SBC began trading as AT&T Inc. on December 1, 2005 but began re-branding as early as November 21. In 2006 AT&T Inc. purchased BellSouth.
AT&T acquired eight companies in 1999 totaling more than $60 billion
In 1997, NYNEX was acquired by Bell Atlantic (taking the Bell Atlantic name), which later, in 2000, acquired GTE, the largest independent telephone company, and renamed itself Verizon.
In 2005, following a protracted bidding war with rival RBOC Qwest, Verizon announced that it would acquire long distance company MCI. The Verizon and MCI merger closed on January 6, 2006.
Sprint survived the act and subsequent economic woes solely on their local telephone holdings which in a moment of pure myopia they spun off. Those minor companies have become Embarg and have continued to prosper due having monopolies in largely rural markets. Sprint briefly prospered from the wireless mania with a fractured PCS strategy which was unsustainable in the long term. Sprint struggled after the wireless market stabilized and learned the humbling reality like most of the other telecom companies that their leaders weren’t geniuses but in the right place at the right time. Sprint management under the inept Gary Forsee purchased Nextel and destroyed that brand and their own in the process. Like AT&T and Worldcom, Sprint proved that buying something isn’t the same as creating something.
Sprint today still survives as an anachronism only due the fact that no other company sees sufficient value in purchasing them.
Remaining Niche Players Focusing on Corporate or Regional Consumer Markets
CenturyLink was originally Century Telephone (CenturyTel), and took its current name in 2009 when it acquired Embarq, the former local operations of Sprint Nextel, which also includes the former operations of Centel. The company, as CenturyTel, had acquired some Wisconsin Bell lines from Ameritech in 1998.
CenturyLink announced in April 2010 it would buy Qwest for US$10.6 billion. The deal was completed April 2011. Qwest, a Denver-based fiber optics long-distance company, had taken over US West in 2000.
Other related companies
The former independent Bell System franchisee Cincinnati Bell, which was not part of the 1984 divestiture because AT&T held only a minority stake in the company, remains independent of the RBOCs.
FairPoint Communications, an independent provider based in North Carolina, acquired Northern New England Telephone Operations. NNETO is an operating company split from the original New England Telephone to serve access lines in Maine and New Hampshire. The sale of these lines by Verizon to FairPoint closed in 2008. Telephone Operating Company of Vermont, a company created following FairPoint’s acquisition, is an operating company wholly owned by Northern New England Telephone Operations. Both companies are regulated as Bell Operating Companies by the FCC.
In 2010, Frontier Communications acquired Frontier West Virginia, one of the original Bell Operating Companies formerly known as “The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of West Virginia”, in a larger deal including some former GTE companies with Verizon Communications. In December 2013, AT&T agreed to sell SNET to Frontier, with the sale closing in the second half of 2014.
A Government of the polls, by the polls, and for the polls
The first Clinton administration is often summed up by that statement as they didn’t lead but rather supported whatever was popular at that particular moment in time. They were and are populists seeking immediate self-gratification without any consideration of the ramifications for the future. Our founders created the separation of powers to provide checks and balances against this very type of leadership. However, the young and inexperienced republican congress too often followed the same philosophy by creating legislation that only served those folks that they dined and golf with.
The re-election of the Clintons will provide a repeat of past Clinton’s performance with more of these these policies and offer NO change to a country desperate for a government free of corruption.
The Clinton Legacy with the Telecommunications Act of 1996
Wikipedia has 63 pages of listings under the heading defunct telecommunications companies. They are not all from this Act, but certainly a large majority are. Every defunct company meant many thousands of jobs and pensions, 401ks, homes and more.
Before the Clinton’s Performance and the 1996 Act was passed, the largest four local telephone companies owned less than half of all the lines in the country while, five years later, the largest four local telephone companies owned about 85% of all the lines in the country.
Escaping Scot Free
20 years later, many of the embittered victims of the Telecommunications Act who lost their retirement, livelihood, sometimes health and more look forward to voting for Hillary and Bill. How is that possible? The Clinton machine with the media’s great help have steeped all of the blame on other monsters like Bernie Ebbers and Joe Nacchio and of course the republican party. Yes, they do deserve blame and their prison sentences but the architects look to prosper again at the cost of more jobs. Have you ever heard of anyone in government being blamed for the horrible impact of this legislation? The Clintons, Newt Gingrich, Al Gore, Reed Hundt are all incredibly rich while the victims make less money today than they did before the infamous Act.
The entire millennial generation think the Clintons are their loving grandparents but their Christmas presents from gramps and nonna will be something out of a Walking Dead episode.
Big Telecom Payoff
The Clintons and their congressional cohorts bent as usual to the big donors which now has created Big Telecom. As Big Telecom is a darling of the politicians and donates significant monies to politicians you will not hear of them often. Instead , it will be Big Pharma, Big Oil – all served to keep you looking the wrong way as the politicians stuff their pockets and Americans lose jobs.
The Future with Hillary and Bill
Another Clinton’s performance will sadly show the Telecommunications Act isn’t an isolated occurrence. Not just one mistake in an otherwise glorious administration but rather a clear pattern of behavior. We will see exactly the same from another Clinton administration. These mistakes impact our country and people’s lives permanently and we cannot afford another Clinton’s Performance.
Please for you and your descendant’s sake do not elect Hillary.
More Reading on the Clinton’s Performance
COMMENTS ON THE ACT:
FCC Chairman Michael Powell -2002 – This is an industry suffering—there have been nearly 500,000 jobs lost, a reported $2 trillion of market value extinguished, and by some estimates companies are laboring under nearly $1 trillion in debt.
PRESIDENT CLINTON: “For the past three years, my administration has promoted the enactment of a telecommunications reform bill to stimulate investment, promote competition, provide open access for all citizens to the Information Superhighway, strengthen and improve universal service and provide families with technologies to help them control what kind of programs come into their homes over television. As a result of this (act), consumers will receive the benefits of lower prices, better quality and greater choice in their television and cable services, and they will continue to benefit from a diversity of voices and viewpoints in radio, television and the print media.”
VICE PRESIDENT GORE: “Passage (of the Act)…is a historic event that will change forever the way every American lives, works, learns and communicates. The overwhelming bipartisan support for this legislation demonstrates America’s commitment to ensuring that all citizens benefit from the Information Superhighway.”
REED HUNDT, CHAIRMAN OF THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION – Democrat: “This bill creates the promise of good, high-paying jobs for millions of Americans and the promise of competition and its benefits of lower prices, higher quality and better service to us all. The bill vests serious responsibilities in the FCC to make competition a reality in as many markets as possible.”
The Effect of the Clinton’s performance on the Competitive Local Exchange Companies (CLECS) – Post Telecom Act of 1996
As the Association for Local Telecommunications Services points out, “[m]ore than 50 CLECs have filed for bankruptcy over [2000-2002] and several others have disappeared without notice.”10 The market capitalization of publicly traded CLECs dropped 95%—from 1986.
Instead the law, signed by former President Bill Clinton five years ago today, delivered gridlock.17 Even the Supreme Court has chastised the statute, writing that: It would be gross understatement to say that the 1996 Act is not a model of clarity. It is in many important respects a model of ambiguity or indeed even self-contradiction. That is most unfortunate for a piece of legislation that profoundly affects a crucial segment of the economy worth tens of billions of dollars.
Leading academic commentary seems to agree with the Supreme Court. Many point to the fact that the Act “maintains a basic confusion of goals and policies that has permeated telecommunications policy for thirty years,” that it “substantially fails to deliver on its large promises,” or that it “has generated more controversy than progress.”
One has even written that the Act’s rhetoric reads like “Eisenhower-era predictions that atomic power would soon cost too little to meter and that we would commute via jetpacks.” At best, certain commentators are lukewarm..
In addition to the actions with the main IXC’s the CLECS were hurt very hard by the Act. Here is a listing from a Gartner report.
- 2-Infinity (out of business in 2001)
- 2nd Century Communications (out of business in 2001)
- 21st Century Telecom Group (acquired by RCN in 2000)
- 3rd Pipe Communications (out of business in 2001)
- @Link Networks (out of business in 2001)
- AARO Broadband Wireless (out of business in 2001)
- AboveNet (new name for Metromedia Fiber Networks when it emerged from Chapter 11 in September 2003)
- ACN Communications (merged with Arrival communications in February 2000)
- Access Integrated Networks (AIN)
- Adelphia Business Solutions (filed Chapter 11 in 2002; changed name to TelCove in March 2003)
- Advanced Radio Telecom (ART) (filed Chapter 11 in 2001 and emerged in 2002 as First Avenue Networks)
- Aeneas Communications
- Aevia (out of business in 2002)
- AirBand Communications
- Alaska Communications Systems (ACS)
- Allegiance Telecom (acquired HarvardNet in early 2001)
- Allied Riser Communications (ARC) (acquired by Cogent Communications in 2002)
- Applied Theory (filed Chapter 11 in 2002 and sold assets in 2002)
- Ardent Communications (filed Chapter 11 in 2001 and sold assets in 2002)
- Arrival Communications (merged with ACN Communications in February 2000)
- AT&T Business Services
- ATX Telecommunications Services (acquired by CoreComm in September 2000; company name changed back to ATX Communications in 2002)
- Avana Communications (out of business in 2001)
- Avista Communications (changed name to One Eighty Communications in 2002)
- Birch Telecom (filed Chapter 11 in July 2002 and emerged in September 2002; merged with Ionex Telecom in 2003, keeping the Birch Telecom name)
- Broadview Networks (acquired assets of Network Plus in 2002)
- BroadRiver Communications (out of business in 2001)
- BlueStar.net (merged with Covad in September 2000 and then shut down by Covad in June 2001)
- Black Hills FiberCom (a subsidiary of Black Hills)
- Broadwing (from the merger of IXC Communications and Cincinnati Bell; Cincinnati Bell sold assets and name to CIII Communications in June 2003)
- Buckeye TeleSystem
- BTI Telecom (announced plans to merge into ITC DeltaCom in July 2003 under the ITC DeltaCom name)
- Cavalier Telephone (acquired Conectiv Communications in November 2001 and acquired telecom assets of Net2000 Communications in 2002)
- Capsule Communications (acquired by Covista Communications in 2002)
- CapRock Communications (acquired by McLeodUSA in December 2000)
- Cablevision Lightpath
- ClearWorks Communications (acquired Link 2 Communications in September 2000; merged with Eagle Broadband/Eagle Wireless in January 2001; operating as Eagle Broadband as of 2003)
- ClearData Communications (out of business in 2000)
- Ciera Network Systems (subsidiary of CCC GlobalCom)
- Choice One Communications (merged with US Xchange in August 2000)
- CFW Communications/Intelos (officially changed name to NTELOS in December 2000)
- Centurion Telecommunications (out of business in 2002)
- CentreCom (out of business in 2002)
- CCC GlobalCom (parent company of Ciera Network Systems)
- Cogent Communications (acquired Allied Riser Communications and Shared Technologies in February 2002, along with U.S. assets of PSINet in April 2002 and FiberCity in September 2002)
- COMAV (out of business in 2000)
- Comcast Business Communications
- Commonwealth Telecom Services (CTSI) (subsidiary of Commonwealth Telephone Enterprises)
- Concentric Network (merged with NEXTLINK to become XO Communications in 2000)
- Conectiv Communications (acquired by Cavalier Telephone in November 2001)
- Con Edison Communications (subsidiary of Consolidated Edison)
- Connecticut Telephone
- Convergent Communications (filed Chapter 11 in 2001 and subsequently sold assets
- Conversent Communications (acquired US Data Centers in late 2001 and REON Broadband in mid-2002)
- Cooperative Communications
- CoreComm (acquired ATX Telecommunications in September 2000; also acquired USN Communications; changed name to ATX Communications in 2002)
- Covad Communications (acquired, via merger, BlueStar.net in September 2000 and then shut down BlueStar in June 2001)
- Covista Communications (changed name from Total Tel-USA Communications in September 2000; acquired Capsule Communications in 2002)
- eLEC Communications (started telecom operations as Essex Communications in 1998; sold most telecom assets in 2003, but continues New York operations as new Rochelle Telephone)
- Edge Connections (out of business in 2002)
- Eagle Broadband (merged with ClearWorks under Eagle in early 2001)
- DukeNet Communications Inc. (a subsidiary of Duke Energy)
- DSLnetworks (out of business in 2001)
- DSL.net (acquired assets of Network Access Solutions and Talking Net in 2003)
- Dixie-Net Communications (acquired Ayrix Technologies in October 2001)
- Digital Broadband Communications (filed Chapter 11 in December 2000; out of business in 2001)
- D&E Communications (acquired Conestoga Enterprises in 2002)
- Cypress Communications (acquired by U.S. RealTel in 2002)
- CTC Telecom (subsidiary of Chibardun Telephone Cooperative)
- CTC Communications (filed Chapter 11 in October 2002)
- CT Communications
- Crescent Telephone (GEITEL, a subsidiary of Global Information Exchange; out of business in 2000)
- Cox Communications/Cox Digital Telephone and Cox Fibernet
- eLink Communications (acquired select assets of OnSite Access in 2002; acquired by Eureka GGN in 2002)
- Electric Lightwave
- Clinton’s Performance
- Enron Communications (a subsidiary of Enron; became more of a wholesale carrier; filed for Chapter 11 in December 2001 and started selling off assets in 2002)
- e.NVIZION Communications (was OTC America; acquired Screen Telephony Services in 2000; changed name to e.NVIZION in 2000)
- Enventis Telecom (was MP Telecom, a subsidiary of Minnesota Power; changed name to Enventis in 2002)
- Epana Networks (acquired Via Communications Group in 2003)
- Eschelon Telecom (acquired Rocky Mountain Telephone in 2001)
- e.spire Communications (formerly ACSI; filed Chapter 11 in March 2001 and sold all assets in 2002)
- Essex Communications (started in 1998; became eLEC Communications; subsequently sold off all but New York assets in 2003)
- Eureka GGN (acquired eLink communications in 2002)
- Everest Broadband Networks
- Everest Connections
- Fastpoint Communications (filed Chapter 11 in December 2000; out of business in 2001)
- FiberCity Networks (acquired by Cogent Communications in 2002)
- FiberNet Telecom Group (became a wholesale carrier in 2000)
- FirstWorld Communications/Verado Holdings (doing Internet Data Center business only as of early 2001)
- Clinton’s Performance
- Flashcom (filed Chapter 11 in December 2000; out of business in 2001)
- Florida Digital Network (planning to acquire Mpower’s Florida and Georgia assets in 2003)
- Focal Communications (entered pre-negotiated Chapter 11 in December 2002 and emerged in July 2003)
- Frontier Communications (a subsidiary of Frontier, merged with Global Crossing in 1999; Global Crossing sold Frontier assets to Citizens Communications in 2001)
- Frontline Communications (CLEC Communications subsidiary; exited the CLEC business in May 2001)
- FullNet Communications (FullTel is the CLEC subsidiary)
- Future One (now part of Internet Commerce & Communications)
- G4 Communications (acquired Vitts Networks in October 2001)
- General Communications (GCI)
- Grande Communications (merged with ClearSource in 2002; acquired assets of TXU Communications in January 2003)
- GST Telecommunications (filed Chapter 11 in late 2000 and assets subsequently acquired by Time Warner Telecom in 2001)
- GTE Communications (subsidiary of GTE; merged with Bell Atlantic to become Verizon)
- Guthrie Center Communications HarvardNet (acquired by Allegiance Telecom in early 2001)
- Hickory Tech (Crystal Communications subsidiary)
- HighSpeed Communications
- ICG Communications/ICG Telecom (filed Chapter 11 in late 2000, filed reorganization plan in late 2001, and emerged in October 2002)
- IdeaOne Telecom
- Clinton’s Performance
- IDS Telecom
- IDT (acquired assets of WinStar Communications, Net2Phone and Star Telecom in 2002)
- Integra Telecom
- Intermedia Communications (including DIGEX; merged with WorldCom in July 2001)
- Internet Commerce & Communications (including Rocky Mountain Internet and Future One)
- Interpath Communications (subsidiary of Carolina Power & Light; network assets transferred to Progress Telecom at end of 2000)
- Intira (was Digital Broadband Network; no longer operates as a CLEC)
- Ionex Telecommunications (merged with Birch Telecom in 2003 under the name of Birch Telcom)
- IP Communications (out of business in early 2003)
- ITC-DeltaCom (filed Chapter 11 with pre-negotiated plan of reorganization in June 2002 and emerged in October 2002; in July 2003 it was announced that BTI Telecom would be merging into ITC DeltaCom under the ITC DeltaCom name)
- IXnet (subsidiary of IPC; acquired by Global Crossing in June 2000)
- Jaguar Communications
- KMC Telecom Holdings
- LDMI Telecommunications (acquired Mpower’s Michigan and Ohio assets in 2003)
- LecStar Communications (acquired residential customers of NuVox in mid-2002; assets transferred to McCormack Avenue in December 2002)
- Level 3 Communications (plans to acquire Genuity in 2003)
- Lighthouse Communications
- Clinton’s Performance
- Light Networks (acquired by Network Telephone in December 2000)
- Lightship Telecom
- LightWave Communications
- Lightyear Communications (was UniDial Communications)
- LMDS Communications (subsidiary of Prime Companies)
- Local Access Communications
- Communications (filed Chapter 11 in early 2002; assets acquired by Western Communications
- in late 2002 but will continue operating as Logix Communications)
- Madison River Communications
- Matrix Telecom
- MCI/WorldCom (changed brand name to MCI in 2003 after filing Chapter 11 in 2002)
- McLeodUSA (acquired Splitrock and CapRock Communications in 2000; sold part of Splitrock assets in 2002; filed Chapter 11 in 2002 and subsequently restructured and emerged from Chapter 11 in 2002)
- MediaOne (subsidiary of MediaOne Group; merged with AT&T in 2000)
- MegaPath Networks (acquired Phoenix Networks in 2002)
- Metricom (filed Chapter 11 in July 2001)
- Metromedia Fiber Networks (filed Chapter 11 in 2002 and emerged in September 2003 under the name of AboveNet)
- MH Telecom
- Mpower Communications (filed Chapter 11 in 2002 and subsequently emerged from Chapter 11 in 2002, but subsequently sold assets in many states in 2003)
- MP Telecom (subsidiary of Minnesota Power; changed name to Enventis in 2002)
- Net2000 Communications (filed Chapter 11 in 2001 and agreed to sell telecom assets to Cavalier Telephone)
- NetCarrier Clinton’s Performance
- NetLojix Communications
- NetVoice Technologies
- Network Access Solutions (NAS) (filed Chapter 11 in 2002; assets acquired by DSL.net in 2003)
- Network Plus (filed Chapter 11 in 2002; assets acquired by Broadview Networks)
- Network Telephone (acquired Light Networks in December 2000; acquired Alltel customers in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and South Carolina in 2002)
- New Edge Networks (acquired some assets of At Home in 2002)
- New Rochelle Telephone (renamed from eLEC Communications for the remaining New York assets of the former company)
- NewSouth Communications
- NEXTLINK Communications (merged with Concentric Network to become XO Communications)
- North American DataCom
- North American Telecom
- NorthPoint Communications (out of business as of April 2001)
- Northwest Telephone
- NTELOS (was CFW Communications until 2000; merged with R&B Communications in 2001)
- Nucentrix Broadband Networks
- NuVox Communications (formed from merger of Gabriel Communications and TriVergent Communications, formerly State Communications; sold residential customers to LecStar in mid-2002)
- One Eighty Communications (started in 1998; acquired Avista in 1999; reorganized and changed name back to one Eighty in late 2001)
- OnePoint Communications (acquired by Verizon in December 2000)
- OnSite Access (selected assets acquired by eLink Communications in 2002)
- Onvoy (formed from combination of MEANS Telecom and MRNet)
- OrcoNet (out of business)
- PacWest Telecomm
- PaeTec Communications
- Phat Pipe
- Phoenix Networks (business customers acquired by MegaPath Networks in October 2000)
- PointOne Telecommunications
- Prime Companies (operating through LMDS Communications subsidiary)
- Progress Telecom
- Quentra Networks (filed Chapter 11 in December 2001; out of business in 2001)
- Qwest Communications (merged with US WEST and operates as an RBOC in that region, plus as an IXC, and as a CLEC in several areas)
- RCN (acquired 21st Century Telecom Group)
- Rhythms NetConnections (out of business in 2001)
- Rockefeller Group Telecommunications Services
- Rocky Mountain Broadband (subsidiary of Rocky Mountain Internet, which is now part of Internet Commerce & Communications)
- Sage Telecom
- SBC Communications, CLEC operations
- Seren Innovations (subsidiary of Xcel Energy)
- Springboard Telecom
- Sprint Local Telecommunications Division, CLEC operations
- STAR Telecommunications (acquired by World Access)
- State Communications (changed name to Trivergent and merged with Gabriel Communications to become NuVox Communications)
- Sure West Communications
- Symphony Telecom
- Talk America
- TelCove (was operating as Adelphia Business solutions until March 2003)
- Teligent (filed Chapter 11 in May 2001 and emerged in September 2002)
- Telseon (most assets acquired by OnFiber Communications in 2002)
- Time Warner Telecom (subsidiary of Time Warner; acquired GST Telecommunications in 2001)
- TotalTel USA Communications (changed name to Covista Communications in September 2000)
- Touch America (subsidiary of Montana Power; filed Chapter 11 in June 2003 and also sold some of its assets to 360networks) Clinton’s Performance
- Twister Communications (out of business)
- TXU Communications (acquired by Grande Communications in early 2003)
- Uni Dial Communications (became Lightyear)
- US LEC (acquired ISP customers of Eagle Communications in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina and
- Tennessee in early 2003)
- USN Communications (filed Chapter 11, then acquired by CoreComm)
- USOL Holdings (was FirstLink Communications)
- U.S. RealTel (acquired Cypress Communications in 2002)
- US Signal (primarily a wholesale carrier but some enterprise business too)
- US Xchange (merged with ChoiceOne Communications)
- VarTec Telecom
- Vectris (filed Chapter 11)
- Verizon, CLEC operations (formed from the merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE)
- Vitts Networks (acquired by G4 Communications in October 2001)
- Williams Communications (entered negotiated Chapter 11 in April 2002 and emerged in late 2002 as WilTel Communications)Clinton’s Performance
- WilTel Communications (the new name for the reorganized Williams Communications as of late 2002) Clinton’s Performance
- Wiwhint Clinton’s Performance
- nStar Communications (filed Chapter 11 in April 2001; assets acquired by IDT in 2002)
- WorldCom (filed Chapter 11 in June 2002; changed brand name to MCI in 2003)
- XO Communications (formed from the merger of NEXTLINK and Concentric Network; filed Chapter 11 in June 2002 and emerged in early 2003) Clinton’s Performance
- Xspedius (acquired assets of e.spire in 2002) Clinton’s Performance
- Yipes (filed Chapter 11 in 2002; sold assets to Yipes Enterprise Services in 2002)
- Ztel Communications
Source Materials about the Clinton’s Performance and the Telecommunications Act of 1996